Customizing OpenStack RBAC policies

OpenStack uses a role based access control (RBAC) mechanism to manage accesses to its resources. With the current architecture, users' roles granted on each project and domain are stored into Keystone, and can be updated through Keystone's API. However, policy enforcement (actually allowing or not the access to resources according to a user's roles) is performed independently in each service, based on the rules defined in each policy.json file.

In a default OpenStack setup (like Devstack), two roles are created:

  • The Member role, which when granted to a user on a project, allows him to manage resources (instances, volumes, ...) in this project.

  • The admin role, which when granted to a user on any project, offers to this user a total control over the whole OpenStack platform. Although this is the current behavior, it has been marked as a bug.

However, the OpenStack policy engine allows operators to specify fine grained set of rules to control access to resources of each OpenStack service (Keystone, Nova, Cinder, ...).

Attributes available to build custom policies

Four types of attributes can be used to set policy rules:

  • User roles, which can be checked by using the following syntax:

  • Other user related attributes (stored into or obtained through the token). The following attributes are available: user_id, domain_id or project_id (depending on the scope), and can be checked against constants or other attributes:

  • API call attributes are any data sent along with the API call. They can be checked against constants or user attributes. For instance, the following statement checks that a user being created is in the same domain as his creator (note that API call attributes have to be on the right side of the expression, while user attributes are on the left side):

  • The fourth category of attributes are what I'd call contextual attributes. These are the attributes of objects referenced (or targeted) by an API call; i.e. any object whose id appear somewhere in the API call. For instance, when granting a new role on a project to a user, all attributes related to the role, the project and the user are available to the policy engine, through the target keyword. The following syntax checks that the role of the context is the Member role:


Depending on the type of API calls, some of the following attributes will be available, according to the objects impacted by the action:

  • domain:

    • target.domain.enabled
  • group:

  • project:

    • target.project.description
    • target.project.domain_id
    • target.project.enabled
  • role:

  • user:

    • target.user.default_project_id
    • target.user.description
    • target.user.domain_id
    • target.user.enabled

Example: admin and super_admin

The following example is taken from a User Story that we were considering at CloudWatt. As a cloud service provider, we wanted to be able to have 2 different levels of administrator roles:

  • An admin role, which allows its users to grant the Member role to any other user.
  • While the super_admin role allows granting any role.

When added to Keystone's ̀policy.json file, the following rules implements the two roles described previously:

"admin_grant_member": "role:admin and 'Member':%(",
"identity:create_grant": "role:super_admin or rule:admin_grant_member",

The first rule describes a new rule called admin_grant_member, which checks that the user authenticated by the token has the admin role (on its scope), and that the role in the context (the role the admin is trying to grant) is the Member role (we used the name attribute, but could use the role's id instead).

The second rule is checked whenever an API call is made to grant a role to a user (action identity:create_grant). This rule tells the policy engine that in order for a user to be allowed to grant a role to another user, the user authenticated by the token must either have the super_admin role, or satisfy the admin_grant_member rule.

Put together these two rules actually meet the use case. Any user with the admin role will only be able to grant the Member role to other users, while users with the super_admin role will be able to grant any role.


One of the most powerful rules that the OpenStack policy engine allows, are those limiting a user's actions to his own domain or project. These kind of rules are widely used in Keystone's policy.v3cloudsample.json.

Also note, that a recent patch merged into oslo-incubator implements the blueprint allowing the policy engine to check contextual attributes against constant values. This patch will have to be synchronized into the OpenStack projects for them to benefit from this feature.